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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 512; doi:10.3390/ijerph13050512

Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus—A Population Based Study in Shanghai, China

Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, No. 800 Xiang Yin Road, Shanghai 200433, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Omorogieva Ojo
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Health Care and Diabetes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [864 KB, uploaded 19 May 2016]   |  


In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes in Shanghai, China. A sample of 3600 residents aged from 18 to 80 years selected by a randomized stratified multiple-stage sampling method in Shanghai was investigated, with blood samples collected. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol), or previous diagnosis by a physician. Adequate control of diabetes was taken as a level of HbA1c < 7.0% (53 mmol/mol) among people with treated diabetes. Multivariable regression analysis was used to explore associated factors for diabetes and prediabetes. In the 3136 participants suitable for analysis, the prevalences of diabetes, prediabetes, and previously diagnosed diabetes were 15.91%, 37.37%, and 4.46%, respectively. Among those with diabetes, only 28.06% were aware of their condition, 25.85% were currently undergoing medication treatment, and 12.42% achieved glycaemic control. Logistic regression showed that old age, preobesity, obesity, elevated triglyceride (TG), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and lower education level were associated with an increased risk of diabetes; old age, obesity, elevated TG, and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, while male sex and rural residence were associated with a decreased risk of prediabetes. In summary, the state of diabetes in China is alarming; the rates of awareness, treatment, and control were relatively low. More efforts should be made to promote the prevention and control of diabetes in china. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; prediabetes; prevalence; awareness; control; HbAlc diabetes; prediabetes; prevalence; awareness; control; HbAlc

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MDPI and ACS Style

Qin, Y.; Wang, R.; Ma, X.; Zhao, Y.; Lu, J.; Wu, C.; He, J. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus—A Population Based Study in Shanghai, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 512.

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