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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 481; doi:10.3390/ijerph13050481

Effects of Meteorological Parameters and PM10 on the Incidence of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Children in China

1,* and 2,*
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China
Ningbo Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo 315010, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Karin Nielsen-Saines
Received: 21 February 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 May 2016 / Published: 10 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Infectious Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4590 KB, uploaded 10 May 2016]   |  


Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a globally-prevalent infectious disease. However, few data are available on prevention measures for HFMD. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impacts of temperature, humidity, and air pollution, particularly levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter 10 micrometers (PM10), on the incidence of HFMD in a city in Eastern China. Daily morbidity, meteorological, and air pollution data for Ningbo City were collected for the period from January 2012 to December 2014. A total of 86,695 HFMD cases were enrolled in this study. We used a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) with Poisson distribution to analyze the nonlinear lag effects of daily mean temperature, daily humidity, and found significant relationships with the incidence of HFMD; in contrast, PM10 level showed no relationship to the incidence of HFMD. Our findings will facilitate the development of effective preventive measures and early forecasting of HFMD outbreaks. View Full-Text
Keywords: distributed lag nonlinear model; hand; foot; and mouth disease; children distributed lag nonlinear model; hand; foot; and mouth disease; children

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Huang, R.; Bian, G.; He, T.; Chen, L.; Xu, G. Effects of Meteorological Parameters and PM10 on the Incidence of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Children in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 481.

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