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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 462; doi:10.3390/ijerph13050462

Confirmation of Maslow’s Hypothesis of Synergy: Developing an Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale

1
Department of Public Health, Sanyo Gakuen University Graduate School of Nursing, 1-14-1 Hirai, Naka-ku, Okayama-shi, Okayama 703-8507, Japan
2
Department of Welfare System and Health Science, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja-shi, Okayama 719-1197, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 10 April 2016 / Accepted: 28 April 2016 / Published: 30 April 2016
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Abstract

This study aimed to develop a new Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale (ASWS) and to confirm Maslow’s hypothesis of synergy: if both a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness at the workplace are high, workers are psychologically healthy. In a cross-sectional study with employees of three Japanese companies, 656 workers answered a self-administered questionnaire on paper completely (response rate = 66.8%). Each questionnaire was submitted to us in a sealed envelope and analyzed. The ASWS indicated high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86). Significant (p < 0.001) positive moderate correlations between ASWS scores and job control scores support the ASWS’s convergent and discriminant validity. Significant (p < 0.001) associations of ASWS scores with psychological distress and work engagement supported the ASWS’s criterion validity. In short, ASWS was a psychometrically satisfactory measure. Significant (p < 0.05) interactions between a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness at the workplace in linear regression models showed that when those two factors are low, psychological distress becomes high. However, when a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness are high, work engagement also becomes high. Thus, Maslow’s hypothesis of synergy was confirmed. View Full-Text
Keywords: acceptance of selfishness; Abraham H. Maslow; altruism; calling; job control; mental health; Ricardo Semler; sense of contribution; synergy; work engagement acceptance of selfishness; Abraham H. Maslow; altruism; calling; job control; mental health; Ricardo Semler; sense of contribution; synergy; work engagement
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Takaki, J.; Taniguchi, T.; Fujii, Y. Confirmation of Maslow’s Hypothesis of Synergy: Developing an Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 462.

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