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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 442; doi:10.3390/ijerph13040442

The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and an Analysis of Related Lifestyle Factors in Beijing Communities

1
Department of Endocrinology, Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853, China
2
Department of Endocrinology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital, 51 Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048, China
3
Department of Ultrasonography, Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 21 February 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
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Abstract

Thyroid nodules (TNs) have annual increasing trends worldwide, and large-scale investigations on the prevalence of TNs in Beijing communities have not been conducted since the introduction of salt iodization in 1995. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TNs, their epidemiological characteristics, and their correlation with lifestyle factors. A total of 6324 permanent residents aged 18 years or older (mean age, 52.15 ± 11.58 years) from seven representative communities in Beijing were included in the analyses. Once informed consent was obtained, the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires, a physical examination, and thyroid ultrasound. A total of 3100 cases had TNs. The overall prevalence rate was 49.0%, and the age-standardized prevalence was 40.1%, which increased significantly as age increased (p < 0.001). The prevalence was significantly higher in females compared to males (p < 0.001), and it was significantly higher among female current smokers and former smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.007). There was no correlation between alcohol consumption and TNs, and there were no significant differences in the prevalence among different groups of taste preference. The prevalence decreased with an increased frequency of seafood intake (p = 0.015) and with higher literacy levels (p < 0.001). The Cochran–Armitage trend test showed that the prevalence significantly increased with decreased physical labor and exercise intensity (p < 0.001, p = 0.009). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.039 (1.034–1.044), p < 0.001), the female sex (OR = 1.789 (1.527–2.097)), Body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.019 (1.005–1.034)), and current smoking habits (OR = 1.246 (1.046–1.483)) were independent risk factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that there is a high prevalence of TNs in Beijing, with a higher prevalence in females than in males. Moreover, the prevalence increases as age increases. Smoking and BMI are independent risk factors for TNs. Therefore, intervention against smoking and weight loss might help reduce the risk of TN occurrence. View Full-Text
Keywords: thyroid nodule; epidemiology; ultrasound; smoking; lifestyle thyroid nodule; epidemiology; ultrasound; smoking; lifestyle
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, H.; Tian, Y.; Yan, W.; Kong, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, A.; Dou, J.; Liang, P.; Mu, Y. The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and an Analysis of Related Lifestyle Factors in Beijing Communities. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 442.

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