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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 423; doi:10.3390/ijerph13040423

Type and Proximity of Green Spaces Are Important for Preventing Cardiovascular Morbidity and Diabetes—A Cross-Sectional Study for Quebec, Canada

1
Geoimpacts Consulting, 111 Rue de la Chasse Galerie, Québec, QC G1B 1Y2, Canada
2
Institut National de la Santé Publique du Québec, 945, Avenue Wolfe, QC G1V 5B3, Canada
3
Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9, Canada
4
Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, 1050 Avenue de la Médécine, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Harry H.X. Wang
Received: 29 November 2015 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Diseases and Multimorbidity in Primary Care)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1933 KB, uploaded 14 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

This study aimed at determining the role of proximity to specific types of green spaces (GSes) as well as their spatial location in the relationship with the most morbid cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. We measured the accessibility to various types of GS and used a cross-sectional approach at census Dissemination Area (DA) levels in the Montreal and Quebec City metropolitan zones for the period 2006–2011. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were fitted to quantify the relationship between distances to specific types of GS and CVD morbidity as well as some risk factors (diabetes and hypertension) while controlling for several social and environmental confounders. GSes that have sports facilities showed a significant relationship to cerebrovascular diseases: the most distant population had an 11% higher prevalence rate ratio (PRR) compared to the nearest, as well as higher diabetes risk (PRR 9%) than the nearest. However, the overall model performance and the understanding of the role of GSes with sport facilities may be substantially achieved with lifestyle factors. Significantly higher prevalence of diabetes and cerebrovascular diseases as well as lower access to GSes equipped with sports facilities were found in suburban areas. GSes can advantageously be used to prevent some CVDs and their risk factors, but there may be a need to reconsider their types and location. View Full-Text
Keywords: green spaces; cardiovascular diseases; diabetes; typology; primary prevention green spaces; cardiovascular diseases; diabetes; typology; primary prevention
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ngom, R.; Gosselin, P.; Blais, C.; Rochette, L. Type and Proximity of Green Spaces Are Important for Preventing Cardiovascular Morbidity and Diabetes—A Cross-Sectional Study for Quebec, Canada. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 423.

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