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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 381; doi:10.3390/ijerph13040381

Assessment and Molecular Characterization of Human Intestinal Parasites in Bivalves from Orchard Beach, NY, USA

Department of Biology, Manhattan College, 4513 Manhattan College Parkway, Riverdale, NY 10471, USA
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Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 30 December 2015 / Revised: 13 March 2016 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 29 March 2016
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Abstract

Bivalves have been shown to be carriers of the human intestinal parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of protozoan parasites in mollusks of New York City using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Four species of mollusks, Mya arenaria, Geukensia demissa, Crassostrea virginica, and Mytilis edulis, were collected from Orchard Beach, NY in the fall of 2014, totaling 159 specimens. Each individual mollusk was dissected to harvest the digestive gland, the mantle, the gills, the foot and the siphon. The tissues were assayed for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii DNA by using primers that target parasite-specific genes. C. parvum was found at a prevalence of 50%, 11.3%, and 1%, respectively, in Mya arenaria, G. demissa, and Mytilis edulis. C. parvum DNA was detected in all the tissues of these bivalve species, except the gills. Furthermore, G. lamblia was detected in Mya arenaria, G. demissa, Crassostrea virginica and Mytilis edulis at a prevalence of 37.5%, 4.5%, 60%, and 20.6%, respectively, while T. gondii DNA was not detected. View Full-Text
Keywords: bivalves; mussels; Cryptosporidium; T. gondii; Orchard Beach; bio-sentinels bivalves; mussels; Cryptosporidium; T. gondii; Orchard Beach; bio-sentinels
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tei, F.F.; Kowalyk, S.; Reid, J.A.; Presta, M.A.; Yesudas, R.; Mayer, D.G. Assessment and Molecular Characterization of Human Intestinal Parasites in Bivalves from Orchard Beach, NY, USA. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 381.

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