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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 380; doi:10.3390/ijerph13040380

Toxicity Evaluation of Graphene Oxide in Kidneys of Sprague-Dawley Rats

1
NIH—Center for Environmental Health, College of Science Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
2
Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
3
CESTEME Program Teacher from Jackson Public School, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
4
Osmania University College for Women, Hyderabad 500001, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William A. Toscano
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 29 March 2016
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Abstract

Recently, graphene and graphene-related materials have attracted a great deal of attention due their unique physical, chemical, and biocompatibility properties and to their applications in biotechnology and medicine. However, the reports on the potential toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) in biological systems are very few. The present study investigated the response of kidneys in male Sprague-Dawley rats following exposure to 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg GO for five days. The results showed that administration of GOs significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner in the kidneys compared with control group. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were also significantly increased in rats intoxicated with GO compared with the control group. There was a significant elevation in the levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydro peroxide in GOs-treated rats compared to control animals. Histopathological evaluation showed significant morphological alterations of kidneys in GO-treated rats compared to controls. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that GO is nephrotoxic and its toxicity may be mediated through oxidative stress. In the present work, however, we only provided preliminary information on toxicity of GO in rats; further experimental verification and mechanistic elucidation are required before GO widely used for biomedical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide; serum creatine; blood urea nitrogen; catalase; glutathione peroxidase; superoxide dismutase; lipid hydroperoxide; Sprague-Dawley rats graphene oxide; serum creatine; blood urea nitrogen; catalase; glutathione peroxidase; superoxide dismutase; lipid hydroperoxide; Sprague-Dawley rats
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Patlolla, A.K.; Randolph, J.; Kumari, S.A.; Tchounwou, P.B. Toxicity Evaluation of Graphene Oxide in Kidneys of Sprague-Dawley Rats. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 380.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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