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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 325; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030325

A Review on the Respiratory System Toxicity of Carbon Nanoparticles

1
Biology Department, College of Science, Engineering, and Technology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
2
Research Center in Minority Institutions-Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering, and Technology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
3
Biology Department, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX 78539, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mónica Amorim
Received: 15 August 2015 / Revised: 13 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
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Abstract

The respiratory system represents the main gateway for nanoparticles’ entry into the human body. Although there is a myriad of engineered nanoparticles, carbon nanoparticles/nanotubes (CNPs/CNTs) have received much attention mainly due to their light weight, very high surface area, durability, and their diverse applications. Since their discovery and manufacture over two decades ago, much has been learned about nanoparticles’ interactions with diverse biological system models. In particular, the respiratory system has been of great interest because various natural and man-made fibrous particles are known to be responsible for chronic and debilitating lung diseases. In this review, we present up-to-date the literature regarding the effects of CNTs or carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the human respiratory system with respect to respiratory toxicity pathways and associated pathologies. This article is intended to emphasize the potentially dangerous effects to the human respiratory system if inadequate measures are used in the manufacture, handling, and preparation and applications of CNP or CNP-based products. View Full-Text
Keywords: CNF; CNT; respiratory pathology; toxicological pathways; exposure levels CNF; CNT; respiratory pathology; toxicological pathways; exposure levels
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pacurari, M.; Lowe, K.; Tchounwou, P.B.; Kafoury, R. A Review on the Respiratory System Toxicity of Carbon Nanoparticles. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 325.

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