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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 304; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030304

Fungi from a Groundwater-Fed Drinking Water Supply System in Brazil

1
Department of Antibiotics, Federal University of Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Morais Rego, 1235, Recife, Pernambuco 50670-901, Brazil
2
Department of Chemical Sciences and Natural Resources, BIOREN-UFRO Scientific and Technological Bioresource Nucleus, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco 4811-230, Chile
3
Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga 4710-057, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Panagiotis Karanis
Received: 11 February 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
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Abstract

Filamentous fungi in drinking water distribution systems are known to (a) block water pipes; (b) cause organoleptic biodeterioration; (c) act as pathogens or allergens and (d) cause mycotoxin contamination. Yeasts might also cause problems. This study describes the occurrence of several fungal species in a water distribution system supplied by groundwater in Recife—Pernambuco, Brazil. Water samples were collected from four sampling sites from which fungi were recovered by membrane filtration. The numbers in all sampling sites ranged from 5 to 207 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL with a mean value of 53 CFU/100 mL. In total, 859 isolates were identified morphologically, with Aspergillus and Penicillium the most representative genera (37% and 25% respectively), followed by Trichoderma and Fusarium (9% each), Curvularia (5%) and finally the species Pestalotiopsis karstenii (2%). Ramichloridium and Leptodontium were isolated and are black yeasts, a group that include emergent pathogens. The drinking water system in Recife may play a role in fungal dissemination, including opportunistic pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: filamentous fungi; yeasts; water distribution system; pathogens filamentous fungi; yeasts; water distribution system; pathogens
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Oliveira, H.M.; Santos, C.; Paterson, R.R.M.; Gusmão, N.B.; Lima, N. Fungi from a Groundwater-Fed Drinking Water Supply System in Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 304.

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