Next Article in Journal
Phosphate Adsorption from Membrane Bioreactor Effluent Using Dowex 21K XLT and Recovery as Struvite and Hydroxyapatite
Previous Article in Journal
An Application of the Multivariate Linear Mixed Model to the Analysis of Shoulder Complexity in Breast Cancer Patients
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 275; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030275

To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring

1
The Aquaya Institute, Nairobi 00505, Kenya
2
The Aquaya Institute, Larkspur, CA 94939, USA
Current address: Berkeley School of Law, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 20 January 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [637 KB, uploaded 2 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies), served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p < 0.05). Our results indicate that smaller water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: water monitoring; water quality; drinking water; regulated testing; fecal contamination; sub-Saharan Africa; water utilities; health agencies; institutional performance water monitoring; water quality; drinking water; regulated testing; fecal contamination; sub-Saharan Africa; water utilities; health agencies; institutional performance
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Peletz, R.; Kumpel, E.; Bonham, M.; Rahman, Z.; Khush, R. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 275.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top