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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 274; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030274

An Application of the Multivariate Linear Mixed Model to the Analysis of Shoulder Complexity in Breast Cancer Patients

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering an Mathematical Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Wheatley Campus, Wheatley, Oxford OX33 1HX, UK
2
Leuven Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics Centre (L-BioStat), Kapucijnenvoer 35 blok D, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
3
Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, London W6 8RP, UK
4
Clinical Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Old Main Building, L51. Groote Schuur Hospital Observatory, Cape Town 7700, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 21 November 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [859 KB, uploaded 2 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

In this study, four major muscles acting on the scapula were investigated in patients who had been treated in the last six years for unilateral carcinoma of the breast. Muscle activity was assessed by electromyography during abduction and adduction of the affected and unaffected arms. The main principal aim of the study was to compare shoulder muscle activity in the affected and unaffected shoulder during elevation of the arm. A multivariate linear mixed model was introduced and applied to address the principal aims. The result of fitting this model to the data shows a huge improvement as compared to the alternatives. View Full-Text
Keywords: multivariate linear mixed model; correlated random effects; autoregressive of order one multivariate linear mixed model; correlated random effects; autoregressive of order one
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Oskrochi, G.; Lesaffre, E.; Oskrochi, Y.; Shamley, D. An Application of the Multivariate Linear Mixed Model to the Analysis of Shoulder Complexity in Breast Cancer Patients. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 274.

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