Next Article in Journal
Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Liver Enzymes in the General Chinese Population
Next Article in Special Issue
Appropriate LDL-C-to-HDL-C Ratio Cutoffs for Categorization of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Uygur Adults in Xinjiang, China
Previous Article in Journal
Association between Polymorphisms and Haplotype in the ABCA1 Gene and Overweight/Obesity Patients in the Uyghur Population of China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 221; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020221

Pollution and Oral Bioaccessibility of Pb in Soils of Villages and Cities with a Long Habitation History

1
GeoConnect, Meester Dekkerstraat 4, Castricum 1901 PV, The Netherlands
2
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, Bilthoven 3720 BA, The Netherlands
3
Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed, Cultural Heritage Agency, P.O. Box 1600, Amersfoort 3800 BP, The Netherlands
4
Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), 3 Avenue Claude-Guillemin, BP 36009, Orléans Cedex 2 45060, The Netherlands
5
Department of Earth Sciences, University Utrecht, P.O. Box 80021, Utrecht 3508 TA, The Netherlands
6
Geology & Geochemistry, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, Amsterdam 1081 HV, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Howard W. Mielke
Received: 7 January 2016 / Revised: 4 February 2016 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lead: Risk Assessment and Health Effects)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1717 KB, uploaded 17 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

The Dutch cities Utrecht and Wijk bij Duurstede were founded by the Romans around 50 B.C. and the village Fijnaart and Graft-De Rijp around 1600 A.D. The soils of these villages are polluted with Pb (up to ~5000 mg/kg). Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the sources of Pb pollution in the urban soils. In ~75% of the urban soils the source of the Pb pollution was a mixture of glazed potsherd, sherds of glazed roof tiles, building remnants (Pb sheets), metal slag, Pb-based paint flakes and coal ashes. These anthropogenic Pb sources most likely entered the urban soils due to historical smelting activities, renovation and demolition of houses, disposal of coal ashes and raising and fertilization of land with city waste. Since many houses still contain Pb-based building materials, careless renovation or demolition can cause new or more extensive Pb pollution in urban soils. In ~25% of the studied urban topsoils, Pb isotope compositions suggest Pb pollution was caused by incinerator ash and/or gasoline Pb suggesting atmospheric deposition as the major source. The bioaccessible Pb fraction of 14 selected urban soils was determined with an in vitro test and varied from 16% to 82% of total Pb. The bioaccessibility appears related to the chemical composition and grain size of the primary Pb phases and pollution age. Risk assessment based on the in vitro test results imply that risk to children may be underestimated in ~90% of the studied sample sites (13 out of 14). View Full-Text
Keywords: lead; pollution; soil; isotopes; sources; oral; bioaccessibility lead; pollution; soil; isotopes; sources; oral; bioaccessibility
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Walraven, N.; Bakker, M.; van Os, B.; Klaver, G.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G. Pollution and Oral Bioaccessibility of Pb in Soils of Villages and Cities with a Long Habitation History. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 221.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top