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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 166; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020166

Biomarker-Based Approaches for Assessing Alcohol Use Disorders

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Research Unit, Seinäjoki Central Hospital and University of Tampere, Seinäjoki 60220, Finland
Academic Editor: Icro Maremmani
Received: 10 November 2015 / Revised: 14 January 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2016 / Published: 27 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treating Alcoholism between Harm Reduction and Immediate Abstinence)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [528 KB, uploaded 27 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Although alcohol use disorders rank among the leading public health problems worldwide, hazardous drinking practices and associated morbidity continue to remain underdiagnosed. It is postulated here that a more systematic use of biomarkers improves the detection of the specific role of alcohol abuse behind poor health. Interventions should be initiated by obtaining information on the actual amounts of recent alcohol consumption through questionnaires and measurements of ethanol and its specific metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a valuable tool for assessing chronic heavy drinking. Activities of common liver enzymes can be used for screening ethanol-induced liver dysfunction and to provide information on the risk of co-morbidities including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and vascular diseases. Conventional biomarkers supplemented with indices of immune activation and fibrogenesis can help to assess the severity and prognosis of ethanol-induced tissue damage. Many ethanol-sensitive biomarkers respond to the status of oxidative stress, and their levels are modulated by factors of life style, including weight gain, physical exercise or coffee consumption in an age- and gender-dependent manner. Therefore, further attention should be paid to defining safe limits of ethanol intake in various demographic categories and establishing common reference intervals for biomarkers of alcohol use disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethanol; health; aminotransferase; GGT; CDT; fibrosis; NASH; obesity; oxidative stress ethanol; health; aminotransferase; GGT; CDT; fibrosis; NASH; obesity; oxidative stress
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Niemelä, O. Biomarker-Based Approaches for Assessing Alcohol Use Disorders. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 166.

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