Increased Urinary Phthalate Levels in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma: A Case-Control Study
AbstractWe assessed the urinary concentration of 16 phthalate metabolites in 57 women with and without uterine leiomyoma (n = 30 and 27; respectively) to determine the association between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. To evaluate exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); we calculated the molar sum of DEHP metabolites; ∑3-DEHP (combining mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP); mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP); and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate); ∑4-DEHP (∑3-DEHP plus mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate); and ∑5-DEHP (∑4-DEHP plus mono (2-(carboxylmethyl)hexyl) phthalate (2cx-MMHP)). The log transformed urinary levels of MEHP; MEHHP; 2cx-MMHP; ∑3-DEHP; ∑4-DEHP; and ∑5-DEHP in the leiomyoma group were significantly higher than those of controls. When we adjusted for age; waist circumference; and parity using multiple logistic regression analyses; we found log ∑3-DEHP (OR = 10.82; 95% CI = 1.25; 93.46) and ∑4-DEHP (OR = 8.78; 95% CI = 1.03; 75.29) were significantly associated with uterine leiomyoma. Our findings suggest an association between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. However; larger studies are needed to investigate potential interactions between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. View Full-Text
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Kim, Y.A.; Kho, Y.; Chun, K.C.; Koh, J.W.; Park, J.W.; Bunderson-Schelvan, M.; Cho, Y.H. Increased Urinary Phthalate Levels in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma: A Case-Control Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1247.
Kim YA, Kho Y, Chun KC, Koh JW, Park JW, Bunderson-Schelvan M, Cho YH. Increased Urinary Phthalate Levels in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma: A Case-Control Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016; 13(12):1247.Chicago/Turabian Style
Kim, Young A.; Kho, Younglim; Chun, Kyoung C.; Koh, Jae W.; Park, Jeong W.; Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Cho, Yoon H. 2016. "Increased Urinary Phthalate Levels in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma: A Case-Control Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 13, no. 12: 1247.
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