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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1202; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121202

High Contributions of Secondary Inorganic Aerosols to PM2.5 under Polluted Levels at a Regional Station in Northern China

1
Meteorological Observation Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China
2
South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou 510655, China
3
Air Quality Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, ON M3H 5T4, Canada
4
Key Laboratory of Regional Climate-Environment for Temperate East Asia (RCE-TEA), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sayed M. Hassan
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Pollution and Human Health Risk)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3615 KB, uploaded 15 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Daily PM2.5 samples were collected at Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional site in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region in 2015. Samples were subject to chemical analysis for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and major water-soluble inorganic ions. The annual average PM2.5 mass concentration was 53 ± 36 μg·m−3 with the highest seasonal average concentration in spring and the lowest in summer. Water-soluble inorganic ions and carbonaceous aerosols accounted for 34% ± 15% and 33% ± 9%, respectively, of PM2.5 mass on annual average. The excellent, good, lightly polluted, moderately polluted, and heavily polluted days based on the Air Quality Index (AQI) of PM2.5 accounted for 40%, 42%, 11%, 4%, and 3%, respectively, of the year. The sum of the average concentration of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA) increased from 4.2 ± 2.9 μg·m−3 during excellent days to 85.9 ± 22.4 μg·m−3 during heavily polluted days, and their contributions to PM2.5 increased from 15% ± 8% to 49% ± 10% accordingly. In contrast, the average concentration of carbonaceous aerosols increased from 9.2 ± 2.8 μg·m−3 to 51.2 ± 14.1 μg·m−3, and their contributions to PM2.5 decreased from 34% ± 6% to 29% ± 7%. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis revealed that the major sources for high PM2.5 and its dominant chemical components were within the area mainly covering Shandong, Henan, and Hebei provinces. Regional pollutant transport from Shanxi province and Inner Mongolia autonomous region located in the west direction of SDZ was also important during the heating season. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical composition; backward trajectory analysis; regional transport; potential source contribution function chemical composition; backward trajectory analysis; regional transport; potential source contribution function
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Tao, J.; Zhang, L.; Jia, X.; Wu, Y. High Contributions of Secondary Inorganic Aerosols to PM2.5 under Polluted Levels at a Regional Station in Northern China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1202.

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