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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1208; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121208

Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men

MRC Population Health Research Unit, Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea
Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea
Radiation Epidemiology Team, Radiation Health Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seongnam 01450, Korea
Cancer Registration and Statistic Branch, National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang 10408, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zubair Kabir
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3860 KB, uploaded 5 December 2016]   |  


Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984–2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC): −3.1 (95% CI, −4.6 to −1.6)) and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC −2.4 (95% CI −2.7 to −2.2)). The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC −2.5 (95% CI −4.1 to −0.8)) and from 2002 to 2013 (APC −5.2 (95% CI −5.7 to −4.7)) and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC): −3.3 (95% CI −4.7 to −1.8)). By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking; cancer; mortality; trends; birth cohort; Korea smoking; cancer; mortality; trends; birth cohort; Korea

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jee, Y.H.; Shin, A.; Lee, J.-K.; Oh, C.-M. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1208.

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