Next Article in Journal
Aniline Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis of Primary Cultured Hepatocytes
Previous Article in Journal
Sleep in a Gymnasium: A Study to Examine the Psychophysiological and Environmental Conditions in Shelter-Analogue Settings
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1189; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121189

Comparing Sanitation Delivery Modalities in Urban Informal Settlement Schools: A Randomized Trial in Nairobi, Kenya

1
Department of Environmental Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
2
Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE) Kenya, Muchai Road, P.O. Box 43864, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
3
Hubert Department of Global Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
4
Department of Health Sciences, Great Lakes University of Kisumu, P.O. Box 2224, Kisumu 40100, Kenya
5
School of Public Health, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
6
College of Engineering and Computer Science, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97201, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [600 KB, uploaded 30 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

The provision of safely managed sanitation in informal settlements is a challenge, especially in schools that require durable, clean, sex-segregated facilities for a large number of children. In informal settlements in Nairobi, school sanitation facilities demand considerable capital costs, yet are prone to breakage and often unhygienic. The private sector may be able to provide quality facilities and services to schools at lower costs as an alternative to the sanitation that is traditionally provided by the government. We conducted a randomized trial comparing private sector service delivery (PSSD) of urine-diverting dry latrines with routine waste collection and maintenance and government standard delivery (GSD) of cistern-flush toilets or ventilated improved pit latrines. The primary outcomes were facility maintenance, use, exposure to fecal contamination, and cost. Schools were followed for one school year. There were few differences in maintenance and pathogen exposure between PSSD and GSD toilets. Use of the PSSD toilets was 128% higher than GSD toilets, as measured with electronic motion detectors. The initial cost of private sector service delivery was USD 2053 (KES 210,000) per school, which was lower than the average cost of rehabilitating the government standard flush-type toilets (USD 9306 (KES 922,638)) and constructing new facilities (USD 114,889 (KES 1,169,668)). The private sector delivery of dry sanitation provided a feasible alternative to the delivery of sewage sanitation in Nairobi informal settlements and might elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. View Full-Text
Keywords: sanitation; school; informal settlements; sanitation service delivery; private sector provision sanitation; school; informal settlements; sanitation service delivery; private sector provision
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bohnert, K.; Chard, A.N.; Mwaki, A.; Kirby, A.E.; Muga, R.; Nagel, C.L.; Thomas, E.A.; Freeman, M.C. Comparing Sanitation Delivery Modalities in Urban Informal Settlement Schools: A Randomized Trial in Nairobi, Kenya. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1189.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top