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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1088; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111088

Changes in Composition and Function of Human Intestinal Microbiota Exposed to Chlorpyrifos in Oil as Assessed by the SHIME® Model

1
Laboratoire Périnatalité et Risques Toxiques (PERITOX), UMR-I01 INERIS, UPJV-CURS CHU Sud, Avenue Laennec, F-80054 Amiens CEDEX 1, France
2
UP-EGEAL 2012.10.101, Institut Polytechnique LaSalle Beauvais, 19 Rue Pierre Waguet, F-60026 Beauvais CEDEX, France
3
Laboratoire Lymphocyte Normal, Pathologique et Cancer (LNPC), EA4666, UPJV-CURS CHU Sud, Avenue Laennec, F-80054 Amiens CEDEX 1, France
4
INRA, UMR1319 MICALIS, AMIPEM, F-78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France
5
AgroParisTech, UMR1319 MICALIS, F-78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France
6
Commensal and Probiotics-Host Interactions Laboratory, INRA, UMR1319 MICALIS, F-78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France
These two authors contributed equally to the work.
These two co-senior authors contributed equally to the work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ricardo Bello-Mendoza
Received: 8 July 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological and Human-Health Effects of Pesticides in the Environment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3850 KB, uploaded 4 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

The presence of pesticide residues in food is a public health problem. Exposure to these substances in daily life could have serious effects on the intestine—the first organ to come into contact with food contaminants. The present study investigated the impact of a low dose (1 mg/day in oil) of the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on the community structure, diversity and metabolic response of the human gut microbiota using the SHIME® model (six reactors, representing the different parts of the gastrointestinal tract). The last three reactors (representing the colon) were inoculated with a mixture of feces from human adults. Three time points were studied: immediately before the first dose of CPF, and then after 15 and 30 days of CPF-oil administration. By using conventional bacterial culture and molecular biology methods, we showed that CPF in oil can affect the gut microbiota. It had the greatest effects on counts of culturable bacteria (with an increase in Enterobacteria, Bacteroides spp. and clostridia counts, and a decrease in bifidobacterial counts) and fermentative activity, which were colon-segment-dependent. Our results suggest that: (i) CPF in oil treatment affects the gut microbiota (although there was some discordance between the culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses); (ii) the changes are “SHIME®-compartment” specific; and (iii) the changes are associated with minor alterations in the production of short-chain fatty acids and lactate. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticide; microbiota; human fecal ecosystem; diversity; functional activity; SHIME® model pesticide; microbiota; human fecal ecosystem; diversity; functional activity; SHIME® model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reygner, J.; Joly Condette, C.; Bruneau, A.; Delanaud, S.; Rhazi, L.; Depeint, F.; Abdennebi-Najar, L.; Bach, V.; Mayeur, C.; Khorsi-Cauet, H. Changes in Composition and Function of Human Intestinal Microbiota Exposed to Chlorpyrifos in Oil as Assessed by the SHIME® Model. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1088.

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