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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1078; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111078

Cellular Mutagenicity and Heavy Metal Concentrations of Leachates Extracted from the Fly and Bottom Ash Derived from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration

1
Department of Nursing, St. Mary’s Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Yilan 26644, Taiwan
2
Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Susanne Charlesworth
Received: 14 August 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 2 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals: Environmental and Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [277 KB, uploaded 2 November 2016]

Abstract

Two incinerators in Taiwan have recently attempted to reuse the fly and bottom ash that they produce, but the mutagenicity of these types of ash has not yet been assessed. Therefore, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the ash with the Ames mutagenicity assay using the TA98, TA100, and TA1535 bacterial strains. We obtained three leachates from three leachants of varying pH values using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test recommended by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (Taiwan EPA). We then performed the Ames assay on the harvested leachates. To evaluate the possible relationship between the presence of heavy metals and mutagenicity, the concentrations of five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the leachates were also determined. The concentrations of Cd and Cr in the most acidic leachate from the precipitator fly ash and the Cd concentration in the most acidic leachate from the boiler fly ash exceeded the recommended limits. Notably, none of the nine leachates extracted from the boiler, precipitator, or bottom ashes displayed mutagenic activity. This data partially affirms the safety of the fly and bottom ash produced by certain incinerators. Therefore, the biotoxicity of leachates from recycled ash should be routinely monitored before reusing the ash. View Full-Text
Keywords: fly ash; bottom ash; mutagenicity; Ames test; toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) fly ash; bottom ash; mutagenicity; Ames test; toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, P.-W.; Liu, Z.-S.; Wun, M.-J.; Kuo, T.-C. Cellular Mutagenicity and Heavy Metal Concentrations of Leachates Extracted from the Fly and Bottom Ash Derived from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1078.

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