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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1076; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111076

Combined and Relative Effect Levels of Perceived Risk, Knowledge, Optimism, Pessimism, and Social Trust on Anxiety among Inhabitants Concerning Living on Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil

1
College of Economics and Administration, Beijing University of Technology, No. 100 Pingleyuan, Beijing 100124, China
2
Faculty of Business, University of Greenwich, London SE10 9LS, UK
3
School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
4
School of Business, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William A. Toscano
Received: 7 September 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 2 November 2016
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Abstract

This research aims at combined and relative effect levels on anxiety of: (1) perceived risk, knowledge, optimism, pessimism, and social trust; and (2) four sub-variables of social trust among inhabitants concerning living on heavy metal contaminated soil. On the basis of survey data from 499 Chinese respondents, results suggest that perceived risk, pessimism, optimism, and social trust have individual, significant, and direct effects on anxiety, while knowledge does not. Knowledge has significant, combined, and interactive effects on anxiety together with social trust and pessimism, respectively, but does not with perceived risk and optimism. Social trust, perceived risk, pessimism, knowledge, and optimism have significantly combined effects on anxiety; the five variables as a whole have stronger predictive values than each one individually. Anxiety is influenced firstly by social trust and secondly by perceived risk, pessimism, knowledge, and optimism. Each of four sub-variables of social trust has an individual, significant, and negative effect on anxiety. When introducing four sub-variables into one model, trust in social organizations and in the government have significantly combined effects on anxiety, while trust in experts and in friends and relatives do not; anxiety is influenced firstly by trust in social organization, and secondly by trust in the government. View Full-Text
Keywords: anxiety; contaminated soil; knowledge; optimism; perceived risk; social trust anxiety; contaminated soil; knowledge; optimism; perceived risk; social trust
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tang, Z.; Guo, Z.; Zhou, L.; Xue, S.; Zhu, Q.; Zhu, H. Combined and Relative Effect Levels of Perceived Risk, Knowledge, Optimism, Pessimism, and Social Trust on Anxiety among Inhabitants Concerning Living on Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1076.

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