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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1073; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111073

The Impacts of Air Temperature on Accidental Casualties in Beijing, China

1
College of Atmospheric Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China
2
College of Atmospheric Science, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610000, Sichuan, China
3
Department of Geography and Geology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101, USA
4
College of Electric Engineering, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610000, Sichuan, China
5
Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kim Natasha Dirks
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 23 October 2016 / Published: 2 November 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2186 KB, uploaded 2 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Emergency room (ER) visits for accidental casualties, according to the International Classification of Deceases 10th Revision Chapters 19 and 20, include injury, poisoning, and external causes (IPEC). Annual distribution of 187,008 ER visits that took place between 2009 and 2011 in Beijing, China displayed regularity rather than random characteristics. The annual cycle from the Fourier series fitting of the number of ER visits was found to explain 63.2% of its total variance. In this study, the possible effect and regulation of meteorological conditions on these ER visits are investigated through the use of correlation analysis, as well as statistical modeling by using the Distributed Lag Non-linear Model and Generalized Additive Model. Correlation analysis indicated that meteorological variables that positively correlated with temperature have a positive relationship with the number of ER visits, and vice versa. The temperature metrics of maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures were found to have similar overall impacts, including both the direct impact on human mental/physical conditions and indirect impact on human behavior. The lag analysis indicated that the overall impacts of temperatures higher than the 50th percentile on ER visits occur immediately, whereas low temperatures show protective effects in the first few days. Accidental casualties happen more frequently on warm days when the mean temperature is higher than 14 °C than on cold days. Mean temperatures of around 26 °C result in the greatest possibility of ER visits for accidental casualties. In addition, males were found to face a higher risk of accidental casualties than females at high temperatures. Therefore, the IPEC-classified ER visits are not pure accidents; instead, they are associated closely with meteorological conditions, especially temperature. View Full-Text
Keywords: air temperature; casualty; emergency room visits; meteorological condition; lag effect air temperature; casualty; emergency room visits; meteorological condition; lag effect
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, P.; Wang, S.; Fan, X.; Li, T. The Impacts of Air Temperature on Accidental Casualties in Beijing, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1073.

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