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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1060;

Patterns of Smoking Behaviour in Low-Income Pregnant Women: A Cohort Study of Differential Effects on Infant Birth Weight

Discipline of Public Health and Primary Care, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Rotunda Hospital, Dublin 1, Ireland
School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Linda Bauld and Rosemary Hiscock
Received: 4 August 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 29 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control and Priority Groups)
Full-Text   |   PDF [965 KB, uploaded 29 October 2016]   |  


Maternal smoking accounts for 20%–30% of low birth weight (BW). Second-Hand Smoke (SHS) also negatively affects BW. This cohort study explored the differential effect of smoking patterns during pregnancy on infant BW. Smoking status for 652 self-reported smokers attending public ante-natal clinics was assessed at baseline (V1 first ante-natal visit), 28–32 weeks (V2) and one week after birth (V3). Multivariable generalised linear regression models tested smoking patterns (continuing to smoke, sustained quitting, partial quitting) on BW adjusting for household smoking and other co-variates. Total quitting showed a median increase of 288 g in BW (95% CI (confidence intervals): 153.1–423 g, p < 0.001), compared to partial quitting (147 g, (95% CI: 50–244 g), p < 0.003). In partial quitters, increased BW was observed only in females 218 g, (95% CI: 81–355 g), p = 0.002). Household SHS showed a specific negative influence on pre-term but not term BW. This study suggests that, for low-income women, quitting or partial quitting during pregnancy both have a positive influence on infant BW. Whether others in the household smoke is also important. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking cessation; inequalities; gender; harm reduction; tobacco control smoking cessation; inequalities; gender; harm reduction; tobacco control

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Hayes, C.; Kearney, M.; O’Carroll, H.; Zgaga, L.; Geary, M.; Kelleher, C. Patterns of Smoking Behaviour in Low-Income Pregnant Women: A Cohort Study of Differential Effects on Infant Birth Weight. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1060.

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