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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 972; doi:10.3390/ijerph13100972

Universal Stress Proteins as New Targets for Environmental and Therapeutic Interventions of Schistosomiasis

1
Biotechnology and Structural Biochemistry (BSB) Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa
2
Department of Biochemistry, Afe Babalola University, PMB 5454, Ado-Ekiti 360001, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 24 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1572 KB, uploaded 30 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

In spite of various control measures and eradication methods that have been in progress, schistosomiasis still prevails as one of the most prevalent debilitating parasitic diseases, typically affecting the poor and the underprivileged that are predominantly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. The parasitic schistosome blood fluke responsible for causing the disease completes its complex developmental cycle in two hosts: humans and freshwater snails, where they physically undergo gross modifications to endure the different conditions associated with each host. Just like any other organism, the worm possesses mechanisms that help them respond to environmental insults. It has been hypothesized that a special class of proteins known as Universal Stress Proteins (USPs) are up-regulated during sudden environmental changes, thus assisting the worm to tolerate the unfavourable conditions associated with its developmental cycle. The position of praziquantel as the drug of choice against all schistosome infections has been deemed vulnerable due to mounting concerns over drug pressure and so the need for alternative treatment is now a matter of urgency. Therefore, this review seeks to explore the associations and possible roles of USPs in schistosomiasis as well as the functioning of these proteins in the schistosomulae stage in order to develop new therapeutic interventions against this disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: cercariae; Schistosoma mansoni; schistosomiasis; schistosomulae; praziquantel; universal stress proteins cercariae; Schistosoma mansoni; schistosomiasis; schistosomulae; praziquantel; universal stress proteins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Masamba, P.; Adenowo, A.F.; Oyinloye, B.E.; Kappo, A.P. Universal Stress Proteins as New Targets for Environmental and Therapeutic Interventions of Schistosomiasis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 972.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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