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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 966; doi:10.3390/ijerph13100966

Are Non-Pharmacological Interventions Effective in Reducing Drug Use and Criminality? A Systematic and Meta-Analytical Review with an Economic Appraisal of These Interventions

1
Department of Health Sciences, Mental Health and Addictions Research Group, ARRC Building, 2nd Floor, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK
2
Health Economics and Decision Science, School for Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, Regent Court, 30 Regent Street, Sheffield S1 4DA, UK
3
York Health Economics Consortium Ltd., Enterprise House, Innovation Way, University of York, York YO10 5NQ, UK
4
York Trials Unit and NIHR RDS YH, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, ARRC Building, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Amie Hayley and Joris Cornelis Verster
Received: 21 April 2016 / Revised: 7 September 2016 / Accepted: 21 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Substance and Drug Abuse Prevention)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1294 KB, uploaded 29 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Background: The numbers of incarcerated people suffering from drug dependence has steadily risen since the 1980s and only a small proportion of these receive appropriate treatment. A systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness and economic evidence of non-pharmacological interventions for drug using offenders was conducted. Methods: Cochrane Collaboration criteria were used to identify trials across 14 databases between 2004 and 2014. A series of meta-analyses and an economic appraisal were conducted. Results: 43 trials were identified showing to have limited effect in reducing re-arrests RR 0.97 (95% CI 0.89–1.07) and drug use RR 0.90 (95% CI 0.80–1.00) but were found to significantly reduce re-incarceration RR 0.70 (95% CI 0.57–0.85). Therapeutic community programs were found to significantly reduce the number of re-arrests RR 0.70 (95% CI 0.56–0.87). 10 papers contained economic information. One paper presented a cost-benefit analysis and two reported on the cost and cost effectiveness of the intervention. Conclusions: We suggest that therapeutic community interventions have some benefit in reducing subsequent re-arrest. We recommend that economic evaluations should form part of standard trial protocols. View Full-Text
Keywords: systematic review; drug treatment; economic appraisal; offenders systematic review; drug treatment; economic appraisal; offenders
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MDPI and ACS Style

Perry, A.E.; Woodhouse, R.; Neilson, M.; Martyn St James, M.; Glanville, J.; Hewitt, C.; Trépel, D. Are Non-Pharmacological Interventions Effective in Reducing Drug Use and Criminality? A Systematic and Meta-Analytical Review with an Economic Appraisal of These Interventions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 966.

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