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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 32; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010032

Micro RNA in Exosomes from HIV-Infected Macrophages

Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310-1495, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mark Edberg, Barbara E. Hayes, Valerie Montgomery Rice and Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 15 August 2015 / Revised: 9 October 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 22 December 2015
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Abstract

Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles secreted by cells that function to shuttle RNA and proteins between cells. To examine the role of exosomal micro RNA (miRNA) during the early stage of HIV-1 infection we characterized miRNA in exosomes from HIV-infected macrophages, compared with exosomes from non-infected macrophages. Primary human monocytes from uninfected donors were differentiated to macrophages (MDM) which were either mock-infected or infected with the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 BaL strain. Exosomes were recovered from culture media and separated from virus particles by centrifugation on iodixanol density gradients. The low molecular weight RNA fraction was prepared from purified exosomes. After pre-amplification, RNA was hybridized to microarrays containing probes for 1200 miRNA species of known and unknown function. We observed 48 miRNA species in both infected and uninfected MDM exosomes. Additionally, 38 miRNAs were present in infected-cell exosomes but not uninfected-cell exosomes. Of these, 13 miRNAs were upregulated in exosomes from HIV-infected cells, including 4 miRNA species that were increased by more than 10-fold. Though numerous miRNA species have been identified in HIV-infected cells, relatively little is known about miRNA content in exosomes from these cells. In the future, we plan to investigate whether the upregulated miRNA species we identified are increased in exosomes from HIV-1-positive patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; exosomes; microRNA; microarray; qPCR HIV-1; exosomes; microRNA; microarray; qPCR
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Roth, W.W.; Huang, M.B.; Addae Konadu, K.; Powell, M.D.; Bond, V.C. Micro RNA in Exosomes from HIV-Infected Macrophages. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 32.

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