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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(9), 11910-11928; doi:10.3390/ijerph120911910

Fine-Scale Spatial Heterogeneity in the Distribution of Waterborne Protozoa in a Drinking Water Reservoir

1
Department of Environmental Research and Innovation (ERIN), Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, 41, rue du Brill, Belvaux L-4422, Luxembourg
2
Department of Environmental Sciences and Management, Université de Liège (ULg), 165 avenue de Longwy, Arlon B-6700, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 21 August 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 23 September 2015
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Abstract

Background: The occurrence of faecal pathogens in drinking water resources constitutes a threat to the supply of safe drinking water, even in industrialized nations. To efficiently assess and monitor the risk posed by these pathogens, sampling deserves careful design, based on preliminary knowledge on their distribution dynamics in water. For the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia, only little is known about their spatial distribution within drinking water supplies, especially at fine scale. Methods: Two-dimensional distribution maps were generated by sampling cross-sections at meter resolution in two different zones of a drinking water reservoir. Samples were analysed for protozoan pathogens as well as for E. coli, turbidity and physico-chemical parameters. Results: Parasites displayed heterogeneous distribution patterns, as reflected by significant (oo)cyst density gradients along reservoir depth. Spatial correlations between parasites and E. coli were observed near the reservoir inlet but were absent in the downstream lacustrine zone. Measurements of surface and subsurface flow velocities suggest a role of local hydrodynamics on these spatial patterns. Conclusion: This fine-scale spatial study emphasizes the importance of sampling design (site, depth and position on the reservoir) for the acquisition of representative parasite data and for optimization of microbial risk assessment and monitoring. Such spatial information should prove useful to the modelling of pathogen transport dynamics in drinking water supplies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Giardia; Cryptosporidium; spatial distribution; microbial risk monitoring; reservoir Giardia; Cryptosporidium; spatial distribution; microbial risk monitoring; reservoir
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Burnet, J.-B.; Ogorzaly, L.; Penny, C.; Cauchie, H.-M. Fine-Scale Spatial Heterogeneity in the Distribution of Waterborne Protozoa in a Drinking Water Reservoir. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 11910-11928.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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