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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(9), 11893-11909; doi:10.3390/ijerph120911893

Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, Box 100256, Gainesville, FL 32610-0256, USA
2
School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave., Wollongong NSW 2522, Australia
3
UCLA-Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, 10920 Wilshire Blvd. Suite 300, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA
4
Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, 2120 Cornell Road, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
5
Office for Research Affairs, College of Nursing, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jenine K. Harris and Douglas A. Luke
Received: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 22 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Network Analysis and Public Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [703 KB, uploaded 22 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents’ psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Results: Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Conclusions: Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care. View Full-Text
Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; community sample; social support networks; caregiver strain; mental health services utilization attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; community sample; social support networks; caregiver strain; mental health services utilization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bussing, R.; Meyer, J.; Zima, B.T.; Mason, D.M.; Gary, F.A.; Garvan, C.W. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 11893-11909.

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