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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(8), 9809-9831; doi:10.3390/ijerph120809809

Risk Factors for Salmonella, Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Campylobacter Occurrence in Primary Production of Leafy Greens and Strawberries

1
Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Food Preservation (LFMFP), Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent 9000, Belgium
2
Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750 Sentrum, 0106 Oslo, Norway
3
Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, 30100 Murcia, Spain
4
Laboratório de Microbiologia e Controle de Alimentos, Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (ICTA/UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Prédio 43212, Campus do Vale, Agronomia, Cep. 91501-970 Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil
5
Royal International Inspection Laboratories (RIIL), Suez 43111, Egypt
6
Laboratory of Food Microbiology & Biotechnology, Department of Industrial Biological Sciences, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Kortrijk 8500, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 16 June 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 13 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [762 KB, uploaded 18 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

The microbiological sanitary quality and safety of leafy greens and strawberries were assessed in the primary production in Belgium, Brazil, Egypt, Norway and Spain by enumeration of Escherichia coli and detection of Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and Campylobacter. Water samples were more prone to containing pathogens (54 positives out of 950 analyses) than soil (16/1186) and produce on the field (18/977 for leafy greens and 5/402 for strawberries). The prevalence of pathogens also varied markedly according to the sampling region. Flooding of fields increased the risk considerably, with odds ratio (OR) 10.9 for Salmonella and 7.0 for STEC. A significant association between elevated numbers of generic E. coli and detection of pathogens (OR of 2.3 for STEC and 2.7 for Salmonella) was established. Generic E. coli was found to be a suitable index organism for Salmonella and STEC, but to a lesser extent for Campylobacter. Guidelines on frequency of sampling and threshold values for E. coli in irrigation water may differ from region to region. View Full-Text
Keywords: primary production; E.coli; index; climate; logistic regression; risk factors primary production; E.coli; index; climate; logistic regression; risk factors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ceuppens, S.; Johannessen, G.S.; Allende, A.; Tondo, E.C.; El-Tahan, F.; Sampers, I.; Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M. Risk Factors for Salmonella, Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Campylobacter Occurrence in Primary Production of Leafy Greens and Strawberries. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 9809-9831.

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