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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 7044-7058; doi:10.3390/ijerph120607044

Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations

1
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid 28029, Spain
2
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Oviedo, Asturias 33006, Spain
3
Unit of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, FISABIO—Universitat Jaume I—Universitat de València Joint Research, Valencia 46020, Spain
4
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel 4002, Switzerland
5
University of Basel, Basel 4003, Switzerland
6
Health Research Institute, Biodonostia, San Sebastián 20014, Spain
7
Department of Environment and Regional Planning, Basque Government, San Sebastian 20004, Spain
8
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona 08003, Spain
9
Hospital del Mar—Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona 08003, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 7 April 2015 / Revised: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
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Abstract

This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to outdoor NO2 and benzene were estimated, temporally adjusted for pregnancy. Interviews about sociodemographic variables, noise and air pollution were carried out. Levels of annoyance were assessed using a scale from 0 (none) to 10 (strong and unbearable); a level of 8 to 10 was considered high. The reported prevalence of high annoyance levels from air pollution was 11.2% and 15.0% from noise; the two variables were moderately correlated (0.606). Significant correlations between NO2 and annoyance from air pollution (0.154) and that from noise (0.181) were observed. Annoyance owing to noise and air pollution had a low prevalence in our Spanish population compared with other European populations. Both factors were associated with proximity to traffic. In multivariate models, annoyance from air pollution was related to NO2, building age, and country of birth; annoyance from noise was only related to the first two. The health burden of these exposures can be increased by stress caused by the perception of pollution sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: annoyance; benzene; environmental pollution; pregnancy; nitrogen dioxide; noise annoyance; benzene; environmental pollution; pregnancy; nitrogen dioxide; noise
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernández-Somoano, A.; Llop, S.; Aguilera, I.; Tamayo-Uria, I.; Martínez, M.D.; Foraster, M.; Ballester, F.; Tardón, A. Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 7044-7058.

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