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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6403-6422; doi:10.3390/ijerph120606403

Smoking Cessation among Low-Socioeconomic Status and Disadvantaged Population Groups: A Systematic Review of Research Output

1
National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC), University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
2
School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Coral Gartner and Britta Wigginton
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [856 KB, uploaded 8 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Background: Smoking cessation research output should move beyond descriptive research of the health problem to testing interventions that can provide causal data and effective evidence-based solutions. This review examined the number and type of published smoking cessation studies conducted in low-socioeconomic status (low-SES) and disadvantaged population groups. Methods: A systematic database search was conducted for two time periods: 2000–2004 (TP1) and 2008–2012 (TP2). Publications that examined smoking cessation in a low-SES or disadvantaged population were coded by: population of interest; study type (reviews, non-data based publications, data-based publications (descriptive, measurement and intervention research)); and country. Intervention studies were coded in accordance with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care data collection checklist and use of biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence was assessed. Results: 278 citations were included. Research output (i.e., all study types) had increased from TP1 27% to TP2 73% (χ² = 73.13, p < 0.001), however, the proportion of data-based research had not significantly increased from TP1 and TP2: descriptive (TP1 = 23% vs. TP2 = 33%) or intervention (TP1 = 77% vs. TP2 = 67%). The proportion of intervention studies adopting biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence had significantly decreased from TP1 to TP2 with an increased reliance on self-reported abstinence (TP1 = 12% vs. TP2 = 36%). Conclusions: The current research output is not ideal or optimal to decrease smoking rates. Research institutions, scholars and funding organisations should take heed to review findings when developing future research and policy. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking cessation; social class; socio-economic factors; poverty; review; intervention; homeless persons; indigenous population; mental disorders; prisoners smoking cessation; social class; socio-economic factors; poverty; review; intervention; homeless persons; indigenous population; mental disorders; prisoners
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Courtney, R.J.; Naicker, S.; Shakeshaft, A.; Clare, P.; Martire, K.A.; Mattick, R.P. Smoking Cessation among Low-Socioeconomic Status and Disadvantaged Population Groups: A Systematic Review of Research Output. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6403-6422.

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