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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6115-6135; doi:10.3390/ijerph120606115

Waterpipe Smoking and Regulation in the United States: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature

College of Nursing, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
Social and Behavioral Health Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, 830 East Main Street, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, 821 West Franklin Street, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
College of Health and Human Performance, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Coral Gartner and Britta Wigginton
Received: 2 April 2015 / Revised: 20 May 2015 / Accepted: 25 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [706 KB, uploaded 29 May 2015]   |  


Background: Researchers in tobacco control are concerned about the increasing prevalence of waterpipe smoking in the United States, which may pose similar risks as cigarette smoking. This review explores the prevalence of waterpipe smoking in the United States as well as the shortcomings of current U.S. policy for waterpipe control and regulation. Methods: Researchers conducted a literature review for waterpipe articles dated between 2004 and 2015 using five online databases: MEDLINE, CINHAHL, ScienceDirect, PMC, and Cochrane Library. Results: To date, few studies have explored the marketing and regulation of waterpipe smoking in the U.S., which has increased in the last ten years, especially among women, adolescents, and young adults. Data indicate that the majority of waterpipe smokers are unaware of the potential risks of use. In addition, current tobacco control policies do not address waterpipe smoking, enabling tobacco companies to readily market and sell waterpipe products to young adults, who are at risk for becoming lifelong smokers. Conclusion: Policy makers in the area of public health need to update existing tobacco regulations to include waterpipe smoking. Similarly, public health researchers should develop public health campaigns and interventions to address the increasing rates of waterpipe smoking in the United States. View Full-Text
Keywords: waterpipe; hookah; regulation; policy waterpipe; hookah; regulation; policy

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Haddad, L.; El-Shahawy, O.; Ghadban, R.; Barnett, T.E.; Johnson, E. Waterpipe Smoking and Regulation in the United States: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6115-6135.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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