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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 5310-5328; doi:10.3390/ijerph120505310

Adult Psychotic Symptoms, Their Associated Risk Factors and Changes in Prevalence in Men and Women Over a Decade in a Poor Rural District of Kenya

1
Health Services and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, de Crespigny Park, London SE 5 8AF, UK
2
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Kenya
3
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, P.O. Box 54840-00200, Kenya
4
Kombewa Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems, Kombewa, P.O Box 54-40100, Kisumu, Kenya
5
Kenya Medical Training College, Nairobi, P.O. Box 30195, GPO-00100, Kenya
6
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisian, Kisumu P.O. Box 1578-40100, Kenya
7
Ministry of Health, Nairobi P.O. Box 30016, GPO-00100, Kenya
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 9 May 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
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Abstract

There have been no repeat surveys of psychotic symptoms in Kenya or indeed subSaharan Africa. A mental health epidemiological survey was therefore conducted in a demographic surveillance site of a Kenyan household population in 2013 to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of psychotic symptoms would be similar to that found in an earlier sample drawn from the same sample frame in 2004, using the same overall methodology and instruments. This 2013 study found that the prevalence of one or more psychotic symptoms was 13.9% with one or more symptoms and 3.8% with two or more symptoms, while the 2004 study had found that the prevalence of single psychotic symptoms in rural Kenya was 8% of the adult population, but only 0.6% had two symptoms and none had three or more psychotic symptoms. This change was accounted for by a striking increase in psychotic symptoms in women (17.8% in 2013 compared with 6.9% in 2004, p < 0.001), whereas there was no significant change in men (10.6% in 2013 compared with 9.4% in 2004, p = 0.582). Potential reasons for this increase in rate of psychotic symptoms in women are explored. View Full-Text
Keywords: psychotic symptoms; prevalence; risk factors; repeat survey; time trend; Kenya psychotic symptoms; prevalence; risk factors; repeat survey; time trend; Kenya
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jenkins, R.; Othieno, C.; Ongeri, L.; Ogutu, B.; Sifuna, P.; Kingora, J.; Kiima, D.; Ongecha, M.; Omollo, R. Adult Psychotic Symptoms, Their Associated Risk Factors and Changes in Prevalence in Men and Women Over a Decade in a Poor Rural District of Kenya. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 5310-5328.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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