Temporal Variations in Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Mvudi River, South Africa
AbstractSurface water has been a source of domestic water due to shortage of potable water in most rural areas. This study was carried out to evaluate the level of contamination of Mvudi River in South Africa by measuring turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, concentrations of nitrate, fluoride, chloride, and sulphate. E. coli and Enterococci were analysed using membrane filtration technique. Average pH, EC and Turbidity values were in the range of 7.2–7.7, 10.5–16.1 mS/m and 1.3–437.5 NTU, respectively. The mean concentrations of fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate for both the wet and the dry seasons were 0.11 mg/L and 0.27 mg/L, 9.35 mg/L and 14.82 mg/L, 3.25 mg/L and 6.87 mg/L, 3.24 mg/L and 0.70 mg/L, respectively. E. coli and Enterococci counts for both the wet and the dry seasons were 4.81 × 103 (log = 3.68) and 5.22 × 103 (log = 3.72), 3.4 × 103 (log = 3.53) and 1.22 × 103 (log = 3.09), per 100 mL of water, respectively. The count of E. coli for both seasons did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) but Enterococci count varied significantly (p < 0.001). All the physico-chemical parameters obtained were within the recommended guidelines of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry of South Africa and the World Health Organization for domestic and recreational water use for both seasons except turbidity and nitrates. The microbiological parameters exceeded the established guidelines. Mvudi River is contaminated with faecal organisms and should not be used for domestic purposes without proper treatment so as to mitigate the threat it poses to public health. View Full-Text
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Edokpayi, J.N.; Odiyo, J.O.; Msagati, T.A.; Potgieter, N. Temporal Variations in Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Mvudi River, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 4128-4140.
Edokpayi JN, Odiyo JO, Msagati TA, Potgieter N. Temporal Variations in Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Mvudi River, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015; 12(4):4128-4140.Chicago/Turabian Style
Edokpayi, Joshua N.; Odiyo, John O.; Msagati, Titus A.; Potgieter, Natasha. 2015. "Temporal Variations in Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Mvudi River, South Africa." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12, no. 4: 4128-4140.