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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 4141-4155; doi:10.3390/ijerph120404141

Combined Effects of Nonylphenol and Bisphenol A on the Human Prostate Epithelial Cell Line RWPE-1

1,2,3,†
,
4,†
,
5
,
2,3
and
2,3,*
1
Department of Urology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, China
2
Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory & State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
3
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
4
Department of Urology, Yangzhou First People's Hospital, Yangzhou 225000, China
5
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Mucosal Immunobiology and Vaccine Research Center, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 405 30, Sweden
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 25 December 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 7 April 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1176 KB, uploaded 14 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

The xenoestrogens nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are regarded as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which have widespread occurrence in our daily life. In the present study, the purpose was to analyze the combined effects of NP and BPA on the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 using two mathematical models based on the Loewe additivity (LA) theory and the Bliss independence (BI) theory. RWPE-1 cells were treated with NP (0.01–100 µM) and BPA (1–5000 µM) in either a single or a combined format. A cell viability assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage rate assay were employed as endpoints. As predicted by the two models and based on the cell viability assay, significant synergism between NP and BPA were observed. However, based on the LDH assay, the trends were reversed. Given that environmental contaminants are frequently encountered simultaneously, these data indicated that there were potential interactions between NP and BPA, and the combined effects of the chemical mixture might be stronger than the additive values of individual chemicals combined, which should be taken into consideration for the risk assessment of EDCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonylphenol (NP); bisphenol A (BPA); combined effect; RWPE-1; Loewe additivity (LA) model; Bliss independence (BI) model nonylphenol (NP); bisphenol A (BPA); combined effect; RWPE-1; Loewe additivity (LA) model; Bliss independence (BI) model
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gan, W.; Zhou, M.; Xiang, Z.; Han, X.; Li, D. Combined Effects of Nonylphenol and Bisphenol A on the Human Prostate Epithelial Cell Line RWPE-1. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 4141-4155.

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