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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 3615-3632; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403615

A Potential Synergy between Incomplete Arsenic Methylation Capacity and Demographic Characteristics on the Risk of Hypertension: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study in an Arsenic-Endemic Area of Inner Mongolia, China

Research Center of Environment and Non-Communicable Disease, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110013, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 8 January 2015 / Revised: 13 March 2015 / Accepted: 25 March 2015 / Published: 31 March 2015
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Abstract

Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with various health hazards induced by arsenic. In this study, we aimed to explore the interaction effect of lower arsenic methylation capacity with demographic characteristics on hypertension risk. A total of 512 adult participants (126 hypertension subjects and 386 non-hypertension subjects) residing in an arsenic-endemic area in Inner Mongolia, China were included. Urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were measured for all subjects. The percentage of urinary arsenic metabolites (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%), primary methylation index (PMI) and secondary methylation index (SMI) were calculated to assess arsenic methylation capacity of individuals. Results showed that participants carrying a lower methylation capacity, which is characterized by lower DMA% and SMI, have a higher risk of hypertension compared to their corresponding references after adjusting for multiple confounders. A potential synergy between poor arsenic methylation capacity (higher MMA%, lower DMA% and SMI) and older age or higher BMI were detected. The joint effects of higher MMA% and lower SMI with cigarette smoking also suggest some evidence of synergism. The findings of present study indicated that inefficient arsenic methylation capacity was associated with hypertension and the effect might be enhanced by certain demographic factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: arsenic; arsenic methylation capacity; hypertension; metabolites; demographic characteristics arsenic; arsenic methylation capacity; hypertension; metabolites; demographic characteristics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Wang, D.; Li, X.; Zheng, Q.; Sun, G. A Potential Synergy between Incomplete Arsenic Methylation Capacity and Demographic Characteristics on the Risk of Hypertension: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study in an Arsenic-Endemic Area of Inner Mongolia, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 3615-3632.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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