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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 3547-3563; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403547

An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women

1
Department of Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Żołnierska Str. 48, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland
2
Department of Clinical Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Szczecin, ul. Krakowska 71–79, 71-017 Szczecin, Poland
3
Department of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Broniewskiego Str. 26, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland
4
Public Health Department, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Żołnierska Str. 48, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland
5
Laboratory of Stem Cell Physiology and Biochemistry, Division and Department of Physiology, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Żołnierska Str. 48, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland
6
Department of Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Żołnierska Str. 48, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 11 January 2015 / Revised: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 20 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
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Abstract

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods: The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1) The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2) A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone and depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3) AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymorphism; AMH; FSH; late reproductive period; depressive symptoms; 5-HTTLPR; MAO-A polymorphism; AMH; FSH; late reproductive period; depressive symptoms; 5-HTTLPR; MAO-A
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jurczak, A.; Szkup, M.; Samochowiec, A.; Grzywacz, A.; Samochowiec, J.; Karakiewicz, B.; Dołęgowska, B.; Grochans, E. An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 3547-3563.

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