Next Article in Journal
An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women
Next Article in Special Issue
Common Features of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens
Previous Article in Journal
Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention
Previous Article in Special Issue
Impact of a Risk Management Plan on Legionella Contamination of Dental Unit Water
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 3535-3546; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403535

Drinking Water from Dug Wells in Rural Ghana — Salmonella Contamination, Environmental Factors, and Genotypes

1
Research Group Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard-Nocht-Straße 74, Hamburg 20359, Germany
2
German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Hamburg-Borstel-Lübeck, Bernhard-Nocht-Straße 74, Hamburg 20359, Germany
3
Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research, Kumasi, Ghana
4
Department of Tropical Medicine, German Armed Forces Hospital of Hamburg, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard-Nocht-Straße 74, Hamburg 20359, Germany
5
Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Hospital Rostock, Schillingallee 70, Rostock 18057, Germany
6
Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Rudolf-Buchheimstraße 6, Gießen 35392, Germany
7
Robert Koch Institute, FG11, National Reference Centre for Salmonella and other Bacterial Enteric Pathogens, Burgstraße 37, Wernigerode 38855, Germany
8
International Vaccine Institute, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea
9
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Accra Road, Kumasi, Ghana
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Samuel Dorevitch
Received: 26 January 2015 / Revised: 23 March 2015 / Accepted: 25 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2486 KB, uploaded 27 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Salmonellosis is an important but neglected disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Food or fecal-oral associated transmissions are the primary cause of infections, while the role of waterborne transmission is unclear. Samples were collected from different dug wells in a rural area of Ghana and analyzed for contamination with bacteria, and with Salmonella in particular. In addition, temporal dynamics and riks factors for contamination were investigated in 16 wells. For all Salmonella isolates antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed, serovars were determined and strains from the same well with the same serovar were genotyped. The frequency of well water contamination with Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria was 99.2% (n = 395). Out of 398 samples, 26 (6.5%) tested positive for Salmonella spp. The serovar distribution was diverse including strains not commonly isolated from clinical samples. Resistance to locally applied antibiotics or resistance to fluoroquinolones was not seen in the Salmonella isolates. The risk of Salmonella contamination was lower in wells surrounded by a frame and higher during the rainy season. The study confirms the overall poor microbiological quality of well water in a resource-poor area of Ghana. Well contamination with Salmonella poses a potential threat of infection, thus highlighting the important role of drinking water safety in infectious disease control. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella; disease transmission; drinking water; dug wells; risk factor Salmonella; disease transmission; drinking water; dug wells; risk factor
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dekker, D.M.; Krumkamp, R.; Sarpong, N.; Frickmann, H.; Boahen, K.G.; Frimpong, M.; Asare, R.; Larbi, R.; Hagen, R.M.; Poppert, S.; Rabsch, W.; Marks, F.; Adu-Sarkodie, Y.; May, J. Drinking Water from Dug Wells in Rural Ghana — Salmonella Contamination, Environmental Factors, and Genotypes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 3535-3546.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top