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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 3014-3025; doi:10.3390/ijerph120303014

Characterization of Aminoglycoside Resistance and Virulence Genes among Enterococcus spp. Isolated from a Hospital in China

1
Center of Laboratory Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, 158 Shangtang Road, Hangzhou 310014, China
2
Medical College, Shihezi University, 280 Beisan Road, Shihezi 832000, China
3
Second Clinical Medical College, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, 548 Binwen Road, Hangzhou 310053, China
4
Wenzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 27 Dashimen Road Xinhe Street, Wenzhou 325000, China
5
Medical College, Taizhou University, 1139 Shifu Road, Taizhou 318000, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 22 December 2014 / Revised: 4 March 2015 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 11 March 2015
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Abstract

This study investigated the aminoglycoside resistance phenotypes and genotypes, as well as the prevalence of virulence genes, in Enterococcus species isolated from clinical patients in China. A total of 160 enterococcal isolates from various clinical samples collected from September 2013 to July 2014 were identified to the species level using the VITEK-2 COMPACT system. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of the identified Enterococcus strains were determined by the Kirby-Bauer (K-B) disc diffusion method. PCR-based assays were used to detect the aminoglycoside resistance and virulence genes in all enterococcal isolates. Of 160 Enterococcus isolates, 105 were identified as E. faecium, 35 as E. faecalis, and 20 isolates were classified as “other” Enterococcus species. High-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) for gentamicin, streptomycin, and both antibiotics was identified in 58.8, 50, and 34.4% of strains, respectively. The most common virulence gene (50.6% of isolates) was efaA, followed by asa1 (28.8%). The most prevalent aminoglycoside resistance genes were aac(6')-Ie-aph(2''), aph(2')-Id, aph(3')-IIIa, and ant(6')-Ia, present in 49.4%, 1.3%, 48.8% and 31.3% of strains, respectively. Overall, E. faecium and E. faecalis were most frequently associated with hospital-acquired enterococcal infections in Zhejiang Province. All aminoglycoside resistance genes, except aph(2'')-Id, were significantly more prevalent in HLAR strains than amongst high level aminoglycoside susceptible (HLAS) strains, while there was no significant difference between HLAR and HLAS strains in regard to the prevalence of virulence genes, apart from esp, therefore, measures should be taken to manage infections caused by multi-drug resistant Enterococcus species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Enterococcus species; high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR); virulence genes; multi-drug resistance Enterococcus species; high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR); virulence genes; multi-drug resistance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, W.; Li, J.; Wei, Q.; Hu, Q.; Lin, X.; Chen, M.; Ye, R.; Lv, H. Characterization of Aminoglycoside Resistance and Virulence Genes among Enterococcus spp. Isolated from a Hospital in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 3014-3025.

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