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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 3002-3013; doi:10.3390/ijerph120303002

Cognitive Functioning and Walking Speed in Older Adults as Predictors of Limitations in Self-Reported Instrumental Activity of Daily Living: Prospective Findings from the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly

1
Department of Functioning Activation, Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Centerfor Geriatrics and Gerontology, 7-430 Morioka-cho, Obu, Aichi 474-8511, Japan
2
Research Institute, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 7-430 Morioka-cho, Obu,Aichi 474-8511, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 11 December 2014 / Revised: 23 February 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 11 March 2015
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Abstract

Our aim was to determine whether baseline measures of cognitive functioning, walking speed, and depressive status are independent predictors of limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults. The cross-sectional study involved 1329 community-dwelling adults, aged 75 years or older. At baseline, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST), Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS), and a word list memory task were completed, and self-reported IADLs and walking speed were recorded. The longitudinal study involved 948 participants without baseline IADL limitation, which was assessed at baseline and 15-month follow up, using the three Kihon Checklist subitems. In cross-sectional analyses, participants with IADL limitation demonstrated greater GDS scores, slower walking speeds, and lower MMSE, word list memory task, and SDST (only for women) scores relative to those without IADL limitation. In the longitudinal analyses, baseline walking speed (men: OR 0.98; women: OR 0.97, p < 0.05) and word list memory task scores (men: OR 0.84; women: OR 0.83, p < 0.05) in both sexes and SDST scores in women (OR 0.96, p = 0.04) were independent predictors of subsequent IADL limitation. Walking speed, memory, and processing speed may be independent predictors of IADL limitation in older adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: instrumental activities of daily living; memory; processing speed; walking speed instrumental activities of daily living; memory; processing speed; walking speed
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Makizako, H.; Shimada, H.; Doi, T.; Tsutsumimoto, K.; Lee, S.; Hotta, R.; Nakakubo, S.; Harada, K.; Lee, S.; Bae, S.; Harada, K.; Suzuki, T. Cognitive Functioning and Walking Speed in Older Adults as Predictors of Limitations in Self-Reported Instrumental Activity of Daily Living: Prospective Findings from the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 3002-3013.

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