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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 2277-2288; doi:10.3390/ijerph120202277

Air Pollution and Daily Clinic Visits for Headache in a Subtropical City: Taipei, Taiwan

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taipei 333, Taiwan
Master Program in Global Health and Development, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
Faculty of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institute, Miaoli 350, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 21 January 2015 / Accepted: 2 February 2015 / Published: 17 February 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [663 KB, uploaded 17 February 2015]


This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant levels and daily clinic visits for headache in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for headache and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006–2011. The odds ratio of clinic visits for headache was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single pollutant models, on warm days (>23 °C) statistically significant positive associations were found for increased rate of headache occurrence and levels of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). On cool days (<23 °C), all pollutants were significantly associated with increased headache visits except SO2. For the two-pollutant models, PM10, O3 and NO2 were significant for higher rate of headache visits in combination with each of the other four pollutants on cool days. On warm days, CO remained statistically significant in all two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient air pollutants increase the risk of clinic visits for headache. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; headache; case-crossover; clinic visits air pollution; headache; case-crossover; clinic visits
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chiu, H.-F.; Weng, Y.-H.; Chiu, Y.-W.; Yang, C.-Y. Air Pollution and Daily Clinic Visits for Headache in a Subtropical City: Taipei, Taiwan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 2277-2288.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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