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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15143-15153; doi:10.3390/ijerph121214969

The Geographic Distribution of Liver Cancer in Canada Does Not Associate with Cyanobacterial Toxin Exposure

1
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
2
Cancer Care Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
3
Morberg Family Chair in Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, John Buhler Research Centre, 715 McDermot Ave. Winnipeg, MB R3E 3P4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 27 August 2015 / Revised: 23 October 2015 / Accepted: 23 November 2015 / Published: 30 November 2015
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Abstract

Background: The incidence of liver cancer has been increasing in Canada over the past decade, as has cyanobacterial contamination of Canadian freshwater lakes and drinking water sources. Cyanotoxins released by cyanobacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Objective: To determine whether a geographic association exists between liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes in Canada. Methods: A negative binomial regression model was employed based on previously identified risk factors for liver cancer. Results: No association existed between the geographic distribution of liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination. As predicted, significant associations existed in areas with a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection, large immigrant populations and urban residences. Discussion and Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes does not play an important role in the increasing incidence of liver cancer in Canada. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; microcystin; liver cancer; blue-green algae; eutrophication; hepatitis B; hepatitis C cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; microcystin; liver cancer; blue-green algae; eutrophication; hepatitis B; hepatitis C
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Labine, M.A.; Green, C.; Mak, G.; Xue, L.; Nowatzki, J.; Griffith, J.; Minuk, G.Y. The Geographic Distribution of Liver Cancer in Canada Does Not Associate with Cyanobacterial Toxin Exposure. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 15143-15153.

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