Next Article in Journal
Greywater Disposal Practices in Northern Botswana—The Silent Spring?
Next Article in Special Issue
Prevalence of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Hypertensive Adults in Rural China: Far from Leveling-Off
Previous Article in Journal
Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Six Pacific Island Countries in Oceania
Previous Article in Special Issue
Identification of Risk Factors Affecting Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes in Adult Patients from Northeast China
Article Menu

Export Article

Comment published on 26 February 2016, see Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 261.

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 14519-14528; doi:10.3390/ijerph121114519

Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461 Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Clinical Bio-Chemistry, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461 Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Omorogieva Ojo
Received: 15 September 2015 / Revised: 7 November 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care and Diabetes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [667 KB, uploaded 13 November 2015]

Abstract

Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12–16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12–17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5–6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: mobile phone radiation; mobile phone base station; RF-EMFR; HbA1c; hyperglycemia mobile phone radiation; mobile phone base station; RF-EMFR; HbA1c; hyperglycemia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Meo, S.A.; Alsubaie, Y.; Almubarak, Z.; Almutawa, H.; AlQasem, Y.; Hasanato, R.M. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 14519-14528.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top