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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 13750-13761; doi:10.3390/ijerph121113750

Combined Effects of Soy Isoflavones and β-Carotene on Osteoblast Differentiation

1
Department of Food Function and Labeling, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan
2
Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan
3
Department of Nutritional Science, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan
4
School of Food and Nutrition, Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 6 October 2015 / Accepted: 20 October 2015 / Published: 28 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Health: Nutritional Perspectives)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [849 KB, uploaded 28 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Soy isoflavones, genistein, daidzein and its metabolite equol, as well as β-carotene have been reported to be effective for maintaining bone health. However, it remains to be elucidated whether combining soy isoflavones with β-carotene is beneficial to bone formation. This study investigated the combined effect of soy isoflavones and β-carotene on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells. Daidzein and genistein alone did not affect cell growth but increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Beta-carotene alone inhibited cell growth and markedly enhanced ALP activity. Soy isoflavones combined with β-carotene resulted in higher ALP activity than treatment with isoflavones or β-carotene alone. We observed significant main effects of β-carotene on the enhanced expression of Runx2, ALP, and ostepontin mRNA, whereas there was a significant main effect of soy isoflavones on the expression of osterix mRNA. To investigate how β-carotene affected osteoblast differentiation, MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with retinoic acid receptor (RAR) pan-antagonist combined with β-carotene. Osteopontin and ALP mRNA expression levels, which were increased following treatment with β-carotene, were significantly suppressed by the RAR pan-antagonist. This suggests treatment with β-carotene enhanced early osteoblastic differentiation, at least in part via RAR signaling. These results indicate that a combination of isoflavones and β-carotene may be useful for maintaining a positive balance of bone turnover by inducing osteoblast differentiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: soy isoflavones; β-carotene; osteoblast differentiation; bone soy isoflavones; β-carotene; osteoblast differentiation; bone
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nishide, Y.; Tousen, Y.; Tadaishi, M.; Inada, M.; Miyaura, C.; Kruger, M.C.; Ishimi, Y. Combined Effects of Soy Isoflavones and β-Carotene on Osteoblast Differentiation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 13750-13761.

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