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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 13750-13761;

Combined Effects of Soy Isoflavones and β-Carotene on Osteoblast Differentiation

Department of Food Function and Labeling, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan
Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan
Department of Nutritional Science, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan
School of Food and Nutrition, Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 6 October 2015 / Accepted: 20 October 2015 / Published: 28 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Health: Nutritional Perspectives)
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Soy isoflavones, genistein, daidzein and its metabolite equol, as well as β-carotene have been reported to be effective for maintaining bone health. However, it remains to be elucidated whether combining soy isoflavones with β-carotene is beneficial to bone formation. This study investigated the combined effect of soy isoflavones and β-carotene on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells. Daidzein and genistein alone did not affect cell growth but increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Beta-carotene alone inhibited cell growth and markedly enhanced ALP activity. Soy isoflavones combined with β-carotene resulted in higher ALP activity than treatment with isoflavones or β-carotene alone. We observed significant main effects of β-carotene on the enhanced expression of Runx2, ALP, and ostepontin mRNA, whereas there was a significant main effect of soy isoflavones on the expression of osterix mRNA. To investigate how β-carotene affected osteoblast differentiation, MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with retinoic acid receptor (RAR) pan-antagonist combined with β-carotene. Osteopontin and ALP mRNA expression levels, which were increased following treatment with β-carotene, were significantly suppressed by the RAR pan-antagonist. This suggests treatment with β-carotene enhanced early osteoblastic differentiation, at least in part via RAR signaling. These results indicate that a combination of isoflavones and β-carotene may be useful for maintaining a positive balance of bone turnover by inducing osteoblast differentiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: soy isoflavones; β-carotene; osteoblast differentiation; bone soy isoflavones; β-carotene; osteoblast differentiation; bone

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Nishide, Y.; Tousen, Y.; Tadaishi, M.; Inada, M.; Miyaura, C.; Kruger, M.C.; Ishimi, Y. Combined Effects of Soy Isoflavones and β-Carotene on Osteoblast Differentiation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 13750-13761.

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