Next Article in Journal
Non-Seasonal Variation of Airborne Aspergillus Spore Concentration in a Hospital Building
Next Article in Special Issue
Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea
Previous Article in Journal
In Utero Exposure to Diethylhexyl Phthalate Affects Rat Brain Development: A Behavioral and Genomic Approach
Previous Article in Special Issue
Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Health in Subjects with Obesity in Chinese Population
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 13711-13729; doi:10.3390/ijerph121113711

Growth Trajectories of Health Behaviors from Adolescence through Young Adulthood

Department of Psychosocial Science, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Christiesgate 12, Bergen N-5020, Norway
Uni Research, Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Krinkelkroken 1, Bergen N-5014, Norway
Department of Health Promotion and Development, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Christiesgate 13, Bergen N-5020, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tetsuji Yamada and Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 12 June 2015 / Revised: 15 September 2015 / Accepted: 22 October 2015 / Published: 28 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [744 KB, uploaded 28 October 2015]   |  


Based on nine waves of data collected during a period of 17 years (1990–2007), the present study explored different developmental trajectories of the following unhealthy behaviors: regular smoking, lack of regular exercise, lack of daily fruit intake, and drunkenness. A baseline sample of 1195 13-year-old pupils was from 22 randomly selected schools in the Hordaland County in western Norway. Latent class growth analysis revealed three developmental trajectories. The first trajectory was a conventional trajectory, comprising 36.3% of participants, who showed changes in smoking, physical exercise, fruit intake, and drunkenness consistent with the prevailing age specific norms of these behaviors in the Norwegian society at the time. The second trajectory was a passive trajectory, comprising 25.5% of participants, who reported low levels of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors during the 17-year period. The third trajectory was an unhealthy trajectory, comprising 38.2% of participants, who had high levels of unhealthy behaviors over time. Several covariates were examined, but only sex and mother’s and father’s educational levels were found to be significantly associated with the identified trajectories. While these findings need to be replicated in future studies, the identification of the different trajectories suggests the need to tailor intervention according to specific needs. View Full-Text
Keywords: drunkenness; fruit intake; latent class growth analysis; physical activity; smoking drunkenness; fruit intake; latent class growth analysis; physical activity; smoking

Figure 1a

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wiium, N.; Breivik, K.; Wold, B. Growth Trajectories of Health Behaviors from Adolescence through Young Adulthood. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 13711-13729.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top