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Correction published on 24 February 2016, see Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 252.

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 13587-13601; doi:10.3390/ijerph121013587

Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

1
Pure Earth, Formerly Blacksmith Institute, 475 Riverside Drive, Suite 860, New York, NY 10115, USA
2
School of Public Health, City University of New York, 2180 Third Ave, New York, NY 10035, USA
3
Green Advocacy Ghana, P.O. Box SK 482, Sakumono Estates, Tema, Ghana
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Oladele A. Ogunseitan
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 21 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3069 KB, uploaded 25 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ghana; contaminated sites; socio demographics; environmental justice Ghana; contaminated sites; socio demographics; environmental justice
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dowling, R.; Ericson, B.; Caravanos, J.; Grigsby, P.; Amoyaw-Osei, Y. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 13587-13601.

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