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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 12426-12445; doi:10.3390/ijerph121012426

Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors and Nuclear Receptors Gene Expression in Infertile and Fertile Men from Italian Areas with Different Environmental Features

1
Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma 00161, Italy
2
Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Siena 53100, Italy
3
Bioscience Research Center, Orbetello (GR) 58015, Italy
4
Department of Obstetric and Gynecological Sciences and Urological Sciences, University of Roma Sapienza, S. Andrea Hospital, Roma 00189, Italy
5
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Advanced Therapies, Section of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara 44124, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 6 August 2015 / Revised: 23 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 5 October 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [334 KB, uploaded 5 October 2015]

Abstract

Internal levels of selected endocrine disruptors (EDs) (i.e., perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP), and bisphenol A (BPA)) were analyzed in blood/serum of infertile and fertile men from metropolitan, urban and rural Italian areas. PFOS and PFOA levels were also evaluated in seminal plasma. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of same subjects, gene expression levels of a panel of nuclear receptors (NRs), namely estrogen receptor α (ERα) estrogen receptor β (ERβ), androgen receptor (AR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) were also assessed. Infertile men from the metropolitan area had significantly higher levels of BPA and gene expression of all NRs, except PPARγ, compared to subjects from other areas. Subjects from urban areas had significantly higher levels of MEHP, whereas subjects from rural area had higher levels of PFOA in both blood and seminal plasma. Interestingly, ERα, ERβ, AR, PXR and AhR expression is directly correlated with BPA and inversely correlated with PFOA serum levels. Our study indicates the relevance of the living environment when investigating the exposure to specific EDs. Moreover, the NRs panel in PBMCs demonstrated to be a potential biomarker of effect to assess the EDs impact on reproductive health. View Full-Text
Keywords: human exposure; men infertility; PFOS; PFOA; BPA; DEHP; MEHP; biomarkers human exposure; men infertility; PFOS; PFOA; BPA; DEHP; MEHP; biomarkers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

La Rocca, C.; Tait, S.; Guerranti, C.; Busani, L.; Ciardo, F.; Bergamasco, B.; Perra, G.; Mancini, F.R.; Marci, R.; Bordi, G.; Caserta, D.; Focardi, S.; Moscarini, M.; Mantovani, A. Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors and Nuclear Receptors Gene Expression in Infertile and Fertile Men from Italian Areas with Different Environmental Features. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 12426-12445.

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