Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production
AbstractThe aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. View Full-Text
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Holvoet, K.; Sampers, I.; Seynnaeve, M.; Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 32-63.
Holvoet K, Sampers I, Seynnaeve M, Jacxsens L, Uyttendaele M. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015; 12(1):32-63.Chicago/Turabian Style
Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke. 2015. "Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12, no. 1: 32-63.