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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(9), 8996-9007; doi:10.3390/ijerph110908996

Climatic Factors and Community — Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections — A Time-Series Analysis Study

1
Department of Public Health Sciences (Global health/IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17177, Sweden
2
Department of Microbiology, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Super Religare Laboratories Limited, Kalinga Hospital, Bhubaneswar 751024, India
3
Department of Paediatrics, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, India
4
Department of Women and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health Unit, Uppsala University, SE 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
5
Indian Initiative for Management of Antibiotic Resistance (IIMAR), Department of Environmental Medicine, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 June 2014 / Revised: 22 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 August 2014 / Published: 29 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease Transmission)
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Abstract

Skin and soft tissue infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (SA-SSTIs) including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have experienced a significant surge all over the world. Changing climatic factors are affecting the global burden of dermatological infections and there is a lack of information on the association between climatic factors and MRSA infections. Therefore, association of temperature and relative humidity (RH) with occurrence of SA-SSTIs (n = 387) and also MRSA (n = 251) was monitored for 18 months in the outpatient clinic at a tertiary care hospital located in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Time-series analysis was used to investigate the potential association of climatic factors (weekly averages of maximum temperature, minimum temperature and RH) with weekly incidence of SA-SSTIs and MRSA infections. The analysis showed that a combination of weekly average maximum temperature above 33 °C coinciding with weekly average RH ranging between 55% and 78%, is most favorable for the occurrence of SA-SSTIs and MRSA and within these parameters, each unit increase in occurrence of MRSA was associated with increase in weekly average maximum temperature of 1.7 °C (p = 0.044) and weekly average RH increase of 10% (p = 0.097). View Full-Text
Keywords: skin and soft tissue infections; Staphylococcus aureus; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); temperature; relative humidity; time-series analysis; antibiotic susceptibility testing skin and soft tissue infections; Staphylococcus aureus; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); temperature; relative humidity; time-series analysis; antibiotic susceptibility testing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sahoo, K.C.; Sahoo, S.; Marrone, G.; Pathak, A.; Lundborg, C.S.; Tamhankar, A.J. Climatic Factors and Community — Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections — A Time-Series Analysis Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 8996-9007.

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