Next Article in Journal
A Survey of Exposure Level and Lifestyle Factors for Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Human Plasma from Selected Residents in Korea
Next Article in Special Issue
What Personal and Environmental Factors Determine Frequency of Urban Greenspace Use?
Previous Article in Journal
Recess Physical Activity and Perceived School Environment among Elementary School Children
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Journey of Recovery and Empowerment Embraced by Nature — Clients’ Perspectives on Nature-Based Rehabilitation in Relation to the Role of the Natural Environment
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(7), 7207-7230; doi:10.3390/ijerph110707207

Emotional, Restorative and Vitalizing Effects of Forest and Urban Environments at Four Sites in Japan

1
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan
2
School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Tampere, Kalevantie 4, Tampere FI-33104, Finland
3
Korea Forest Service, Government Complex 1, 189 Cheongsa-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-701, Korea
4
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu Daejeon 305-764, Korea
5
Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8602, Japan
6
Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA), PO Box 18 (Jokiniemenkuja 1), Vantaa FI-01301, Finland
7
Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, 6-2-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2014 / Revised: 22 June 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 15 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Nature)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [528 KB, uploaded 15 July 2014]   |  

Abstract

The present study investigated the well-being effects of short-term forest walking and viewing (“forest bathing”). The hypothesis in our study was that both environment (forest vs. urban) and activity (walking and viewing) would influence psychological outcomes. An additional aim was to enhance basic research using several psychological methods. We conducted the experiments using 45 respondents in four areas of Japan from August to September, 2011. The hypothesis in our study was supported, because significant interaction terms between the environment and activity were confirmed regarding the Profile of Mood States (POMS) indexes, Restorative Outcome Scale (ROS) and Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS). No statistical differences between the two experimental groups in any of the ten scales were found before the experiment. However, feelings of vigor and positive effects, as well as feelings of subjective recovery and vitality were stronger in the forest environment than in the urban environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest bathing (Shinrin-yoku); psychological outcome; restorativeness; vitalization; emotion forest bathing (Shinrin-yoku); psychological outcome; restorativeness; vitalization; emotion
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Takayama, N.; Korpela, K.; Lee, J.; Morikawa, T.; Tsunetsugu, Y.; Park, B.-J.; Li, Q.; Tyrväinen, L.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kagawa, T. Emotional, Restorative and Vitalizing Effects of Forest and Urban Environments at Four Sites in Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 7207-7230.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top