Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(7), 7036-7044; doi:10.3390/ijerph110707036
Article

Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

,
,
,
,
 and *
Received: 30 April 2014; in revised form: 27 June 2014 / Accepted: 30 June 2014 / Published: 11 July 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [238 KB, uploaded 11 July 2014]
Abstract: The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine.
Keywords: hippuric acid; specific gravity; creatinine; urinary excretion rate; urinary volume; urinary flow rate hippuric acid; specific gravity; creatinine; urinary excretion rate; urinary volume; urinary flow rate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Nicolli, A.; Chiara, F.; Gambalunga, A.; Carrieri, M.; Bartolucci, G.B.; Trevisan, A. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 7036-7044.

AMA Style

Nicolli A, Chiara F, Gambalunga A, Carrieri M, Bartolucci GB, Trevisan A. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(7):7036-7044.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni B.; Trevisan, Andrea. 2014. "Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 7: 7036-7044.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert