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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(7), 7036-7044; doi:10.3390/ijerph110707036

Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

Department of Cardiologic, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padova, I-35128 Padova, Italy
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Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 27 June 2014 / Accepted: 30 June 2014 / Published: 11 July 2014
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Abstract

The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine.
Keywords: hippuric acid; specific gravity; creatinine; urinary excretion rate; urinary volume; urinary flow rate hippuric acid; specific gravity; creatinine; urinary excretion rate; urinary volume; urinary flow rate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nicolli, A.; Chiara, F.; Gambalunga, A.; Carrieri, M.; Bartolucci, G.B.; Trevisan, A. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 7036-7044.

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